*** please answer to peer DQ response, add citation and references tahnks ! ****
Answer one: One common musculoskeletal change is osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease. This is when repetitive use of a joint causes a decrease in cartilage in the joint. Pain and edema are symptoms of osteoarthritis. There are four stage to osteoarthritis with the fourth stage being 60% of cartilage is lost. Patient function is affected due to the pain at the joint. Their activity may be limited. Treatment should include rest, medications, pain relief, and possibly arthroplasty (Falkner & Green, 2018).
The metabolic system is responsible for hormone secretion that helps with many functions of the body (Falkner & Green, 2018). One common metabolic disorder is hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone helps the brain, heart, muscles, and other organs. It also helps people stay warm and use energy. Symptoms of hypothyroidism are feeling cold, fatigue, dry skin, depressed mood, and constipation. It is diagnosed by a blood test for TSH level. Since there is no cure for hypothyroidism patients. Patients must manage it by medication for their lifetime. However, with medication management it can be controlled (American Thyroid Association, 2019).
A multisystem health dysfunction that 1.5 million people are affected by and takes 250,000 lives a year is sepsis. Sepsis comes from an infection that travels to the blood stream causing a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS). Symptoms of SIRS are temperature greater that 38.3 degrees Celsius or less than 36 degrees Celsius, heart rate greater than 90 beats per minute, respiratory rate greater than 20 breaths per minute or PaCO2 less than 32mmHg, or white blood cell count greater than 12,000 cells/mm3 or less than 4000 cells/mm3. Sepsis is two or more SIRS signs and symptoms and a confirmed or suspected infection. Severe sepsis is sepsis and a decreased urinary output, lactic acid level greater than 2 mmol/L, platelet count greater than 100,000 per mL, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or others. Septic shock is when fluid resuscitative or vasopressor medication do not raise the mean arterial blood pressure. Quick intervention of fluids and antibiotics is important to saving the lives of sepsis patients (Falkner & Green, 2018).
American Thyroid Association (2019). Hypothyroidism (Underactive). Retrieved from https://www.thyroid.org/hypothyroidism/
Falkner, A. & Green, S. Z. (2018). Musculoskeletal, Metabolism, and Multisystem Complexities. In Grand Canyon University (Eds.), Pathophysiology: Clinical Applications for Client Health. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/#/chapter/5